Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation during Pregnancy on Birth Weight: A Case-Control Study

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seyyed-al Shohada Hospital, Zahedan, Iran

2 Department of Cardiology, Seyyed-al Shohada Hospital, Zahedan, Iran

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Previous studies revealed that maternal serum level of vitamin D can influence neonatal outcomes. In this controlled trial, we evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on birth weight.
Methods: In this interventional study, we enrolled 67 pregnant women (gestation: 10 weeks), who referred to Seyyedal Shohada Hospital during two years (from January 2014) with vitamin D less than 30 ng/ml. From gestational age of 14-24 weeks, vitamin D (50,000 IU/week) was administered to the patients, and its level was measured again in the 24th week of gestation. At this time, patients with vitamin D more than 30 ng/ml served as the intervention group, while the remaining patients were excluded (n=55 patients). In the control group, the level of vitamin D was measured at the time of delivery.
Results: The mean vitamin D level in the intervention group was 43.04±20.09 ng/ml. The baseline patient characteristics such as gravidity, parity, and the number of deliveries were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the two groups were significantly different regarding neonates’ characteristics such as birth weight, height, and head
circumference.
Conclusion: Our findings showed that administrating vitamin D during pregnancy increases the mean values of neonatal weight, head circumference, and height.

Keywords


References
1. Sachan A, Gupta R, Das V, Agarwal A, Awasthi PK, Bhatia V. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81(5):1060-4.
2. Wang J, Yang F, Mao M, Liu DH, Yang HM, Yang SF. High prevalence of vitamin D and calcium deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in Chengdu, China. World J Pediatr. 2010; 6(3):265-7.
3. Dawodu A, Wagner CL. Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: an international perspective. Arch Dis Child.
2007; 92(9):737-40.
4. Lee JM, Smith JR, Philipp BL, Chen TC, Mathieu J, Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007; 46(1):42-4.
5. Viljakainen HT, Saarnio E, Hytinantti T, Miettinen M, Surcel H, Mäkitie O, et al. Maternal vitamin D status determines bone variables in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(4):1749-57.
6. Kazemi A, Sharifi F, Jafari N, Mousavinasab N. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in an Iranian population. J Womens Health. 2009; 18(6):835-9.
7. Specker BL. Does vitamin D during pregnancy impact offspring growth and bone? Proc Nutr Soc. 2012; 71(1):38–45.
8. Whitehouse AJ, Holt BJ, Serralha M, Holt PG, Kusel MM, Hart PH. Maternal serum vitamin D levels during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development. Pediatrics. 2012; 129(3):485–93.
9. Walker VP, Zhang X, Rastegar I, Liu PT, Hollis BW, Adams JS, et al. Cord blood vitamin D status impacts innate immune responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(6):1835–43.
10. Bodnar LM, Simhan HN. Vitamin D may be a link to black-white disparities in adverse birth outcomes. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2010; 65(4):273–84.
11. Hollis BW, Pittard WB 3rd. Evaluation of the total fetomaternal vitamin D relationships at term: evidence for racial differences. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984; 59(4):652–7.
12. Roth DE. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: safety considerations in the design and interpretation of clinical trials. J Perinatol. 2011; 31(7):449–59.
13. Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, Del Valle HB. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.
14. De-Regil LM, Palacios C, Ansary A, Kulier R, Pena-Rosas JP. Vitamin D supplementation for women
during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 2:CD008873.
15. Thorne-Lyman A, Fawzi WW. Vitamin D during pregnancy and maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012; 26(Suppl 1):75–90. 16. Khalessi N, Kalani M, Araghi M, Farahani Z. The relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and low birth weight neonates. J Fam Reprod Health. 2015; 9(3):113-7. 17. Hashemipour S, Ziaee A, Javadi A, Movahed F, Elmizadeh K, Javadi EH, et al. Effect of treatment of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy on fetal growth indices and maternal weight gain: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014; 172:15-9. 18. Sabour H, Hossein-Nezhad A, Maghbooli Z, Madani F, Mir E, Larijani B. Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: a cross-sectional study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006; 22(10):585-9. 19. Gernand AD, Simhan HN, Klebanoff MA, Bodnar LM. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and measures of newborn and placental weight in a U.S. multicenter cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(1):398-404. 20. Pérez-López FR, Pasupuleti V, Mezones-Holguin E, Benites-Zapata VA, Thota P, Deshpande A, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Fertil Steril. 2015; 103(5):1278-88.e4. 21. Galthen-Sørensen M, Andersen LB, Sperling L, Christesen HT. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and fetal bone growth assessed by ultrasound: a systematic review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 44(6):633-40. 22. Roth DE, Al Mahmud A, Raqib R, Akhtar E, Perumal N, Pezzack B, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of high-dose prenatal third-trimester vitamin D3 supplementation in Bangladesh: the AViDD trial. Nutr J. 2013; 12:47. 23. Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Mirghafourvand M, Mansouri A, Najafi M, Khodabande F. The effect of vitamin D and calcium plus vitamin D during pregnancy on pregnancy and birth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. J Caring Sci. 2015; 4(1):35–44.