Salmon Patch and Mongolian Spot Frequency in the Northwest of Iran: A Descriptive Study

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor , Pediatric Health Research Center, Department of Pediatric, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2 Pediatrician, Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

Background: Cutaneous manifestations are commonly observed in the neonatal period. It is important to differentiate physiologic skin lesions from pathologic ones to avoid parents’ concerns. Regarding this, the current study aimed to investigate the frequency and localization of salmon patch (SP) and Mongolian spot (MS) in Iranian newborns to assess the potential relationship between the neonatal and maternal characteristics.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on one thousand healthy infants born at Al-Zahra University Hospital in the northwest of Iran during August-September 2014. For the aims of the study, the neonates were examined by a pediatrician. The collected data included gender, gestational age, anatomical sites of the lesions (MS and SP), birth weight of the newborns, parental consanguinity, parity, and maternal age. The exclusion criteria included major known congenital chromosomal or metabolic abnormalities, stillbirths, and admission in the Sick Newborn Care Unit or Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
Results: According to the results of this study, the frequency rates of MS and SP among 1000 newborns were found to be 32.3% and 14.5%, respectively. Maternal age was the only variable which showed a statistically significant relationship with SP (P=0.024). In addition, sacral region and upper eyelid were found to be the most common site of MS and SP involvement, respectively.
Conclusion: MS and SP which are commonly observed in the routine neonatal examination may worry parents regardless of their association with an underlying systemic disorder. Regarding this, we recommend careful examination of the newborns’ skin by pediatrician in the neonatal wards.

Keywords


  1. Moosavi Z, Hosseini T. One-year survey of cutaneous lesions in 1000 consecutive Iranian newborns. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006; 23(1):61–3.
  2. Jain N, Rathore BS, Agarwal AK, Bhardwaj A. Cutaneous lesions in neonates admitted in a tertiary setup neonatal intensive care unit.Indian J Paediatr Dermatol. 2013; 14(3):62-6.
  3. O’Connor NR, McLaughlin MR, Ham P. Newborn skin: Part I. Common rashes. Am Fam Physician. 2008; 77(1):47-52.
  4. Pruksachatkunakorn C, Durate AM, Schachner LA. Skin lesions in newborns. Int Pediatr. 1999; 14(1):28-31.
  5. Pahwa M, Pahwa P, Jain RK. Transient neonatal dermatosis-mostly physiological. J Neonatol. 2008; 22(1):10-3.
  6. Shih IH, Lin JY, Chen CH, Hong HS. A birthmark survey in 500 newborns: clinical observation in two northern Taiwan medical center nurseries. Chang Gung Med J. 2007; 30(3):220-5.
  7. Hidano A, Purwoko R, Jitsukawa K. Statistical survey of skin changes in Japanese neonates. Pediatr Dermatol. 1986; 3(2):140-4.
  8. Sachdeva M, Kaur S, Nagpal M, Dewan SP. Cutaneous lesions in new born. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2002; 68(6):334-7.
  9. Kahana M, Feldman M, Abudi Z, Yurman S. The incidence of birthmarks in Israeli neonates. Int J Dermatol. 1995; 34(10):704-6.
10. Gokdemir G, Erdogan HK, Köşlü A, Baksu B. Cutaneous lesions in Turkish neonates born in a teaching hospital. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009; 75(6):638.

11. Gupta D, Thappa DM. Mongolian Spots--a prospective study. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013; 30(6):683-8.

12. Nanda A, Kaur S, Bhakoo ON, Dhall K. Survey of cutaneous lesions in Indian newborns. Pediatr Dermatol. 1989; 6(1):39-42.

13. Bista R, Pandey P. Mongolian spot. Radiogr Open. 2014; 1(1):12-8.

14. Reza AM, Farahnaz GZ, Hamideh S, Alinaghi SA, Saeed Z, Mostafa H. Incidence of mongolian spots and its common sites at two university hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010; 27(4):397-8.

15. Egemen A, İkizoğlu T, Ergör S, Mete Asar G, Yılmaz Ö. Frequency and characteristics of Mongolian spots among Turkish children in Aegean region. Turk J Pediatr. 2006; 48(3):232-6.

16. Leung AK. Mongolian spots in Chinese children. Int J Dermatol. 1988; 27(2):106-8.

17. Maleki M, Farhat AS, Nahidi Y, Herizadeh NS, Ahrani S. A prevalence survey of pigmented and vascular birthmarks in 1000 newborns from the Northeast of Iran. Iran J Dermatol. 2013; 16(2):64-8.

18. Khoshnevisasl P, Sadeghzadeh M, Mazloomzadeh S, Zanjani AA.The incidence of birthmarks in neonates born in Zanjan, Iran.J Clin Neonatol. 2015; 4(1):8-12.

19. Boccardi D, Menni S, Ferraroni M, Stival G, Bernardo L, La Vecchia C, et al. Birthmarks and transient skin lesions in newborns and their relationship to maternal factors: a preliminary report from northern Italy. Dermatology. 2007; 215(1):53-8.

20. Liu C, Feng J. Qu R, Zhou H, Ma H, Niu X, et al. Epidemiologic study of predisposing factor in erythema toxicum neonatorum. Dermatology. 2005; 210(4):269-72.

21. Ferahbas A, Utas S, Akcakus M, Gunes T, Mistik S. Prevalence of cutaneous findings in hospitalized neonates: a prospective observational study. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009; 26(2):139-42.

22. Brzezinski P. Dermatology of neonatal period--Skin diseases undemanding of treatment. Przegl Lek. 2009; 66(9):535-7.

23. Shajari H, Shajari A, Sajadian NS, Habiby M. The incidence of birthmarks in Iranian neonates. Acta Med Iran. 2007; 45(5):424-6.

24. Leung AK, Kao CP. Extensive mongolian spots with involvement of the scalp. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999; 16(5):371-2.

25. Haveri FT, Inamadar AC.A cross-sectional prospective study of cutaneous lesions in newborn. ISRN Dermatol. 2014; 2014:360590.

26. Monteagudo B, Labandeirab J, Acevedo A, Cabanillas M, León-Muiños E, Fernandez-Prieto R, et al.Salmon patch: a descriptive study. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2011; 102(1):24–7.

27. Leung AK, Telmesani AM. Salmon patches in Caucasian children. Pediatr Dermatol. 1989; 6(3):185–7.