Comparison of Vitamin D Level in Preterm and Term Infant–Mother Pairs: A Brief Study

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Neonatal Health Research Center (NHRC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Mofid Hospital, Tehran, Iran

2 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Mofid Hospital, Tehran, Iran

3 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: Recent studies have demonstrated the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population. Pregnancy and preterm delivery are known as risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Consequently, vitamin D level in women with preterm deliveries might vary from those with term pregnancies. In this study, we aimed to compare vitamin D level in term and preterm infant–mother pairs.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2013. Serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in preterm infant-mother pairs (≤ 32 weeks of gestation and birth weight ≤ 1500 g) was compared with term infant-mother pairs within the first 24 hours after delivery.
Results: In total, 62 infant-mother pairs were recruited in this study, including 33 preterm (53.2%) and 29 term (46.8%) newborns; overall, 32 (51.6%) infants were male. the mean maternal age was 27.3 years in the preterm group and 26.4 years in the term group. The mean serum vitamin D level in preterm infants was 13.91 ng/ml. In the preterm group, vitamin D level was within the range of 4-59 ng/ml in newborns and 8-62 ng/ml in mothers. In the term group, the mean vitamin D level was 13.39 in infants and 13.7 ng/ml in mothers. In total, 48.5% and 65.5% of preterm and term groups had vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Among all newborns, 56% had vitamin D deficiency, although the difference between term and preterm neonates was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant correlation between the infants’ serum vitamin D level and birth weight. Based on the findings, serum vitamin D levels in mothers and newborns were significantly correlated (P<0.001).
Conclusion: According to the present study, there was no significant correlation between gestational age and vitamin D level in infant-mother pairs; however, vitamin D levels in mothers and newborns were significantly correlated.

Keywords


  1. Preterm birth Fact sheet N 363. World Health Organization. Available at: URL: http://www.who.int /mediacentre/factsheets/fs363/en/; 2015.
  2. Afjeh SA, Sabzehei MK, Fallahi M, Esmaili F. Outcome of very low birth weight infants over 3 years report from an Iranian center. Iran J Pediatr. 2013; 23(5):579-87.
  3. Rustico SE, Calabria AC, Garber SJ. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2014; 1(3):85-91.
  4. Forrest KY, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res. 2011; 31(1):48-54.
  5. ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. ACOG committee opinion No. 495: vitamin D: screening and supplementation during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 118(1):197-8.
  6. Bodnar LM, Platt RW, Simhan HN. Early-Pregnancy vitamin D deficiency and risk of preterm birth subtypes. Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125(2):439-47.
  7. Abrams SA; Committee on Nutrition. Calcium and vitamin D requirements of enterally fed preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2013; 131(5):e1676-83.
  8. Mehta S, Hunter DJ, Mugusi FM, Spiegelman D, Manji KP, Giovannucci EL, et al. Perinatal outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and child mortality and their association with maternal vitamin D status in Tanzania. J Infect Dis. 2009; 200(7):1022–30.
  9. Baker PN, Wheeler SJ, Sanders TA, Thomas JE, Hutchinson CJ, Clarke K, et al. A prospective study of micronutrient status in adolescent pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(4):1114–24.
10. Camargo CA Jr, Rifas-Shiman SL, Litonjua AA, Rich-Edwards JW, Weiss ST, Gold DR, et al. Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85(3):788–95.

11. Yu CK, Sykes L, Sethi M, Teoh TG, Robinson S. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol. 2009; 70(5):685–90.

12. Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26(10):2341–57.

13. Leffelaar ER, Vrijkotte TG, van Eijsden M. Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to fetal and neonatal growth: results of the multi-ethnic Amsterdam born children and their development cohort. Br J Nutr. 2010; 104(1):108-17.

14. Bowyer L, Catling-Paull C, Diamond T, Homer C, Davis G, Craig ME. Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Clin Endocrinol. 2009; 70(3):372-7.

15. Zhu T, Liu TJ, Ge X, Kong J, Zhang LJ, Zhao Q.  High prevalence of maternal vitamin D deficiency in preterm births in northeast China, Shenyang. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(2):1459-65.

16. Shibata M, Suzuki A, Sekiya T, Sekiguchi S, Asano S Udagawa Y, et al. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant Japanese women with threatened premature delivery. J Bone Miner Metab. 2011; 29(5):615–20.

17. Prentice A, Jarjou LM, Goldberg GR, Bennett J, Cole TJ, Schoenmakers I. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and birthweight, growth and bone mineral accretion of Gambian infants. Acta Paediatrica. 2009; 98(8):1360–2.

18. Morley R, Carlin JB, Pasco JA, Wark JD. Materna 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(3):906–12.

19. Thorne-Lyman A1, Fawzi WW. Vitamin D during pregnancy and maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes: a systematic review and metanalysis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012; 26(0 1):75-90.

20. Spiro A, Buttriss JL. Vitamin D: an overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe. Nutr Bullet. 2014; 39(4):322-50.

21. Greer FR. Fat-soluble vitamin supplements for enterally fed preterm infants. Neonatal Netw. 2001; 20(5):7–11.

22. Cooke R, Hollis B, Conner C, Watson D, Werkman S, Chesney R. Vitamin D and mineral metabolism in the very low birth weigh infant receiving 400 IU of vitamin D. J Pediatr. 1990; 116(3):423–8.

23. Delvin EE, Salle BL, Claris O, Putet G, Hascoet JM, Desnoulez L, et al. Oral vitamin A, E and supplementation of pre-term newborns either breast-fed or formula-fed: a 3-month longitudinal study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005; 40(1):43–7.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Preterm birth Fact sheet N 363. World Health Organization. Available at: URL: http://www.who.int /mediacentre/factsheets/fs363/en/; 2015.
  2. Afjeh SA, Sabzehei MK, Fallahi M, Esmaili F. Outcome of very low birth weight infants over 3 years report from an Iranian center. Iran J Pediatr. 2013; 23(5):579-87.
  3. Rustico SE, Calabria AC, Garber SJ. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2014; 1(3):85-91.
  4. Forrest KY, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res. 2011; 31(1):48-54.
  5. ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. ACOG committee opinion No. 495: vitamin D: screening and supplementation during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 118(1):197-8.
  6. Bodnar LM, Platt RW, Simhan HN. Early-Pregnancy vitamin D deficiency and risk of preterm birth subtypes. Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125(2):439-47.
  7. Abrams SA; Committee on Nutrition. Calcium and vitamin D requirements of enterally fed preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2013; 131(5):e1676-83.
  8. Mehta S, Hunter DJ, Mugusi FM, Spiegelman D, Manji KP, Giovannucci EL, et al. Perinatal outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and child mortality and their association with maternal vitamin D status in Tanzania. J Infect Dis. 2009; 200(7):1022–30.
  9. Baker PN, Wheeler SJ, Sanders TA, Thomas JE, Hutchinson CJ, Clarke K, et al. A prospective study of micronutrient status in adolescent pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(4):1114–24.
10. Camargo CA Jr, Rifas-Shiman SL, Litonjua AA, Rich-Edwards JW, Weiss ST, Gold DR, et al. Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85(3):788–95.

11. Yu CK, Sykes L, Sethi M, Teoh TG, Robinson S. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol. 2009; 70(5):685–90.

12. Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26(10):2341–57.

13. Leffelaar ER, Vrijkotte TG, van Eijsden M. Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to fetal and neonatal growth: results of the multi-ethnic Amsterdam born children and their development cohort. Br J Nutr. 2010; 104(1):108-17.

14. Bowyer L, Catling-Paull C, Diamond T, Homer C, Davis G, Craig ME. Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Clin Endocrinol. 2009; 70(3):372-7.

15. Zhu T, Liu TJ, Ge X, Kong J, Zhang LJ, Zhao Q.  High prevalence of maternal vitamin D deficiency in preterm births in northeast China, Shenyang. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(2):1459-65.

16. Shibata M, Suzuki A, Sekiya T, Sekiguchi S, Asano S Udagawa Y, et al. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant Japanese women with threatened premature delivery. J Bone Miner Metab. 2011; 29(5):615–20.

17. Prentice A, Jarjou LM, Goldberg GR, Bennett J, Cole TJ, Schoenmakers I. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and birthweight, growth and bone mineral accretion of Gambian infants. Acta Paediatrica. 2009; 98(8):1360–2.

18. Morley R, Carlin JB, Pasco JA, Wark JD. Materna 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(3):906–12.

19. Thorne-Lyman A1, Fawzi WW. Vitamin D during pregnancy and maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes: a systematic review and metanalysis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012; 26(0 1):75-90.

20. Spiro A, Buttriss JL. Vitamin D: an overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe. Nutr Bullet. 2014; 39(4):322-50.

21. Greer FR. Fat-soluble vitamin supplements for enterally fed preterm infants. Neonatal Netw. 2001; 20(5):7–11.

22. Cooke R, Hollis B, Conner C, Watson D, Werkman S, Chesney R. Vitamin D and mineral metabolism in the very low birth weigh infant receiving 400 IU of vitamin D. J Pediatr. 1990; 116(3):423–8.

23. Delvin EE, Salle BL, Claris O, Putet G, Hascoet JM, Desnoulez L, et al. Oral vitamin A, E and supplementation of pre-term newborns either breast-fed or formula-fed: a 3-month longitudinal study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005; 40(1):43–7.