Prevalence of Preterm Neonates and Risk Factors

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Pediatrics, Madani Children's Hospital. Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

2 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Asali Hospital. Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Abstract

Introduction Preterm birth is still a major health problem throughout the world. Preterm birth results in 75% of neonatal mortality. We sought to identify risk factors which cause preterm birth.
Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study assessed all preterm neonates born in Asali Hospital in Khorram Abad (either by NVD or C/S) during the first 6 months of 2007. Sampling method was census. Fetal sex, maternal disease, maternal addiction to cigarettes,  maternal age, placental problems, number of gravidities, PROM, preeclampsia, multifetal gestation, Apgar score, uterine anomaly were the variables studied in this survey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data and the data was analyzed with SPSS software.
 Results 183 of 2179 live neonates borne in Asali hospital were preterm (8.4%). The most common factors related to preterm birth were: Primigravidity(56.3%), PROM(35.5%), preterm labor pain(33.8%), maternal disease(22.4%), preeclampsia(21.9%), multifetal gestation(19.7%), previous abortion(18.6%), previous preterm delivery(9.8%), high risk maternal age(10.4%) and placental problems(7.7%).  Preterm labor pain was significantly more common among multiparus women in comparison with nulipara ones(x2=16.5, p=0.000049) but occurrence of PROM(x2=0.57, p=0.45), preeclampsia(x2=0.8, p=0.37), maternal chronic disease(x2=0.55, p=0.46) and multifetal gestation(x2=0.01, p=0.91) was not significantly different among multipara and primipara women.   
Conclusion Several factors related to preterm birth can be prevented by health modalities. Maternal education and giving advanced information to mothers in prenatal health care visits, preterm birth and its side effects may be reduced. 

Keywords