Document Type: Original Article
Tehran University of medical sciences
Maternal- fetal & Neonatal Research Center, Tehran University of medical sciences
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Breastfeeding Research Center, Tehran University of medical sciences
Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, School of Medicine, Tehran university of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Physiology, McGill University, Canada
Objectives: Considering the rarity of umbilical cord prolapse (UCP) and lack of accurate data about the risk factors and health outcomes, we aimed to evaluate cases of cesarean section (CS) due to UCP in order to reduce treatment costs and provide information about the mortality and morbidity associated with this condition.
Patients & Methods: Of 35,259 cases of CS performed in four hospitals during 2004-2012, 103 cases of UCP were selected as the case group; on the other hand, 318 cases without UCP were classified as the control group. Information was extracted from patients' records and analyzed by SPSS version 18.
Results: Prevalence of UCP was estimated at 0.2%. In the case group, the active phase of labor was reported 1.4 times (81% vs 57%-P<0.00), engagement 8 times (14% vs 2% -P<0.001), transverse presentation 8 times (6% vs 2%-P<0.002), grand multiparity 3.9 times (4% vs 0-P<0.001), oligohydramnios 4.7 times (5% vs. 0-P<0.0001, and polyhydramnios 5.9 times (6% vs 0 - P<0.001). UCP was more prevalent in post-term deliveries (P<0.043). One-minute Apgar score < 7 was 3 times more prevalent in neonates of the case group (P<0.00). Prepartum vaginal bleeding was 4 times more common in the case group, compared to the control group; also, decreased fetal movement and heart rate drop were more prevalent in the case group. Mortality rate was 5.2% in the case group and 1.7% in the control group. Overall, the control group had a better general health at discharge, compared to the case group.
Conclusion: A statistically significant correlation was detected between UCP and gestational age, active phase of labor, fetal presentation, engagement, parity, and amniotic fluid volume.