Relationship between Mothers’ Spiritual Health Scores with Newborns’ Physical Development Indices and Physiologic Parameters in Hazrat Zeinab Training Hospital

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Community-Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Maternal-Fetal Medicine Research Center, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: Spiritual health is one of the important factors predicting human health. This study aimed to determine the relationship between mothers’ spiritual health with newborns’ physical development indices and other physiologic parameters.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 155 mothers giving birth to newborns were selected from Hazrat Zeinab hospital during 2017-2018. The data were gathered through a checklist containing all mothers’ and babies’ demographic information. Moreover, we used Palutzian and Ellison’s scale to measure the mothers’ spiritual health score. To analyze the data, we used SPSS software (version 18).
Results: The mothers’ mean age was reported as 27.84±6.67 years. Moreover, 71.6% of the mothers’ educational level was under diploma, and 65.2% of them were not employed (did not have any jobs). The mean score of the mothers’ spiritual health was 75.96±8.75. In this regard, 97.4% of the subjects had a moderate level of spiritual health, and 2.6% of them had a high level of spiritual health. There was a significant negative correlation between the mothers’ spiritual health score and neonates’ physical development scores. However, this correlation was significant (height: r=-0.1, P=0.21; weight r=-0.058, P=0.47; size of head: r=-0.033, P=0.6; size of belly: r=0.047, P=0.56), and there were positive correlations between the mothers’ spiritual health scores (heart beats: r=-0.034, P=0.66; percentage of saturated oxygen: r=-0.034, P=0.90; degree of heat: r=0.047, P=0.96). However, none of these correlations were statistically significant.
Conclusion: In general, the results of this study showed that most of the mothers had a normal and high level of spiritual health, but a higher percentage of moderate level of spiritual health was observed in mothers, compared to those of other levels. Moreover, no significant correlations were found between mothers’ spiritual health scores with newborns’ physical development indices and other physiologic factors.


1. Haji A, Mahmoud Fh, Karimi Q, Abbasi A. The relationship between psychological profile of pregnant women with weight, height and head circumference of infants at birth. J Health Breeze. 2016; 5(1):18-26.
2. Howland LC. Preterm birth: implications for family 

stress and coping. Newborn Infant Nurs Rev. 2007; 7(1):14-9.
3. Burke KC, Burke JD, Rae DS, Regier DA. Comparing age at onset of major depression and other psychiatric disorders by birth cohorts in five US community populations. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991; 48(9):789-95.
4. Selman L, Harding R, Gysels M, Speck P, Higginson IJ. The measurement of spirituality in palliative care and the content of tools validated cross-culturally: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011; 41(4):728-53.
5. Cooper KL, Chang E, Sheehan A, Johnson A. The impact of spiritual care education upon preparing undergraduate nursing students to provide spiritual care. Nurse Educ Today. 2013; 33(9):1057-61.
6. Rahimi N, Nouhi E, Nakhaee N. Spiritual well-being and attitude toward spirituality and spiritual care in nursing and midwifery students. Iran J Nurs. 2013; 26(85):55-65.
7. Pickner WJ, Puumala SE, Chaudhary KR, Burgess KM, Payne NR, Kharbanda AB. Emergency department utilization for mental health in American Indian children. J Pediatr. 2016; 174:226-31.e3.
8. Jadidi A, Farahaninia M, Janmohammadi S, Haghani H. Spiritual well being of elderly people resident in nursing home. J Geriatr Nurs. 2015; 1(2):22-30.
9. Tajvidi M, Dehghan Nayeri N. Experiencing spirituality in pregnancy: a phenomenological study. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Facul. 2016; 14(8):674-81.
10. Callister LC, Khalaf I. Spirituality in childbearing women. J Perinat Educ. 2010; 19(2):16-24.
11. Avaznejad N, Ravanipour M, Bahreyni M, Motamed N. Comparison of spiritual health in mothers with healthy children and mothers of children with chronic disease in Kerman 2015-2016. Nurs Vulnerables. 2016; 3(8):13-25.
12. Burkhardt MA, Nagai-Jacobson MG. Spirituality: living our connectedness. Massachusetts: Cengage Learning; 2002.
13. Sayyed Fatemi N, Rezai M, Givari A, Hosseini F. Impact of prayer on spiritual health of patients with cancer. Payesh. 2006; 5(4):295-304.
14. Mann JR, Mannan J, Quiñones LA, Palmer AA, Torres M. Religion, spirituality, social support, and perceived stress in pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010; 39(6):645-57.
15. Kadivar M, Seyedfatemi N, Jeshvaghanee SS, Cheraghi MA, Haghani H. Exploring the relationship between spiritual well-being and stress and coping strategies in the mothers of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care units. Daneshvar Med. 2015; 22(118):67-76.
16. Vafaei Fooladi A, Rassouli M, Yaghmaie F, Shakeri N. Assessing correlation between spiritual wellbeing and stress of mothers of hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care units. Iran J Nurs. 2015; 28(95):54-62.
17. Haji Rafiei E, Tork Zahrani S, Alavi Majd H, Nayebi
Nia As. Spiritual health and its related factors in pregnant women presenting to health centers In Qazvin, Iran, In 2015. J Nurs Midwifery Urmia Univ Med Sci. 2018; 16(4):225-33.
18. Narimani M, Rostami M. Role of religious attitudes, spiritual well-being and social support in predicting the life satisfaction in mothers of mental retardation children. Islam Health J. 2014; 1(3):41-9.
19. Rezaei M, Adib-Hajbaghery M, Seyedfatemi N, Hoseini F. Prayer in Iranian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Complement Ther Clin Prac. 2008; 14(2):90-7.
20. Domar AD, Penzias A, Dusek JA, Magna A, Merarim D, Nielsen B, et al. The stress and distress of infertility: does religion help women cope? Sex Reprod Menopause. 2005; 3(2):45-51.
21. McCoubrie RC, Davies AN. Is there a correlation between spirituality and anxiety and depression in patients with advanced cancer? Support Care Cancer. 2006; 14(4):379-85.
22. Nelson CJ, Rosenfeld B, Breitbart W, Galietta M. Spirituality, religion, and depression in the terminally ill. Psychosomatics. 2002; 43(3):213-20.
23. Kabiry B, Shahri P, Azarnosh S, Haghighizadeh M, Mirfathi S. The relationship between mother’s general health and growth of below-6-month-old infants referred to health centers of west of Ahvaz. Sadra Med Sci J. 2015; 3(3):227-34.
24. Underwood LG, Teresi JA. The daily spiritual experience scale: development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Ann Behav Med. 2002; 24(1):22-33.
25. Liou SR, Wang P, Cheng CY. Effects of prenatal maternal mental distress on birth outcomes. Women Birth. 2016; 29(4):376-80.
26. Bazrafshan MR, Rad AM. The effect of pregnant women’s anxiety on apgar score and birth weight of newborns (2009). Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Facul. 2009; 17(12):58-68.
27. Dehestani H, Moshfeghy Z, Ghodrati F, Akbarzadeh M. The relationship of spiritual health and mother’s forgiveness with her anxiety in the labor of the pregnant women. Int J Womens Health Reprod Sci. 2018; 7(2):174-9.
28. Akbarzadeh M, Masoudi Z, Zare N, Vaziri F. Comparison of the effects of doula supportive care and acupressure at the BL32 point on the mother’s anxiety level and delivery outcome. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2015; 20(2):239.
29. Akbarzadeh M, Masoudi Z, Hadianfard MJ, Kasraeian M, Zare N. Comparison of the effects of maternal supportive care and acupressure (BL32 acupoint) on pregnant women’s pain intensity and delivery outcome. J Pregnancy. 2014; 2014:129208.
30. Adanikin AI, Onwudiegwu U, Akintayo AA. Reshaping maternal services in Nigeria: any need for spiritual care? BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014; 14(1):196.
31. Abiodun OA, Adetoro OO, Ogunbode OO. Psychiatric morbidity in a pregnant population in Nigeria. Gen 

Hosp Psychiatry. 1993; 15(2):125-8.
32. Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W, Abrams B, Lammer EJ. Maternal stressful life events and risks of birth defects. Epidemiology. 2007; 18(3):356-61.
33. Sable MR, Wilkinson DS. Impact of perceived stress, major life events and pregnancy attitudes on low birth weight. Fam Plann Perspect. 2000; 32(6):288-94.
34. Williamson JH, LeFevre M. Tangible assistance: a simple measure of social support predicts pregnancy outcome. Fam Pract Res J. 1992; 12(3):289-95.
35. Hasanjanzadeh P, Faramarzi M. Relationship between maternal general and specific-pregnancy stress, anxiety, and depressionsymptoms and pregnancy outcome. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017; 11(4):VC04-7.
36. Aslami E, Alipour A, Aghayusefi A, Najib F. Assessing the effectiveness of mindfulness-based islamic–spiritual schemas on anxiety of mothers pregnancy and infants physiological health. J Health Psychol. 2015; 4(14):5-16.
37. Toosi M, Akbarzadeh M, Zare N, Sharif F. The role of relaxation training in health index of infants in pregnant mothers. J Jahrom Univ Med Sci. 2013; 11(1):14.
38. Akbarzadeh M, Dokuhaki S, Joker A, Pishva N, Zared N. Teaching attachment behaviors to pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of effects on infant mental health from birth to the age of three months. Ann Saudi Med. 2016; 36(3):175-83.
39. Dokuhaki A, Akbarzadeh M, Pishva N, Zare N. A study of the effect of training pregnant women
about attachment skills on infants motor development indices at birth to four months. Fam Med Prim Care Rev. 2017; 19(2):114-22.
40. Dokuhaki S, Heidary M, Akbarzadeh M. Investigation of the effect of training attachment behaviors to pregnant mothers on some physical indicators of their infants from birth to three months based on the separation of male and female infants. Pediatr Neonatol. 2018; 60(3):324-31.
41. Akbarzadeh M , Bahmani N, Moatari M, PourAhmad S, Zare N .The effects of training based on BASNEF model and acupressure at GB21 point on the infants’ physical growth indicators. Iran J Neonatol. 2014; 5(4):18-24.
42. Akbarzadeh M, Moattari M, Bahmani N, Bonyadpour B, Pour Ahmad S. Comparison of the effects of educational programs on the development of infants aged 1-3 months based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure on the GB-21 point. Iran J Neonatol. 2016; 7(2):20.
43. Setodeh S, Sharif F, Akbarzadeh M. The impact of paternal attachment training skills on the extent of maternal neonatal attachment in primiparous women: a clinical trial. Fam Med Prim Care Rev. 2018; 20(1):47-54.
44. Edraki M, Zendeh-Zaban S, Beheshti PN, Hemati F, Haghpanah S. The effect of maternal attachment behaviors program on physiological indicators of preterm infants: a clinical trial. Sadra Med Sci J. 2017; 4(1):1-10.