Associated Risk Factors and Prevalence of Congenital Malformations in Ardabil, Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 MSc of Midwifery, Healthcare Center, Ardabil, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Community Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran

3 Bachelor of midwifery, clerk of Ardabil District Health Center, Ardabil, Iran

4 Assistant professor, School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences


Introduction: Congenital anomalies are the most common cause of disability in developed and developing countries. Costs of hospitalization and treatment of congenital anomalies pose a significant burden to families and societies. The objective of the present study was to determine the associated risk factors and prevalence of congenital malformations in Ardabil, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2010 and July 2011 in three maternity hospitals, located in Ardabil, Iran. All live newborns were examined during the first 24 hours of life. Out of 6,868 live births during the study period, 57 neonates with congenital malformations were selected as the case group and 180 normal neonates were included as the control group. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire and prenatal and delivery records. Data were entered to SPSS version 11, and statistical analysis was performed, using Chi-square along with univariate and multivariate logistic regressions.
Results: The prevalence of congenital malformations was 8.2 per 1,000 live births.  Musculoskeletal system malformation was the most common congenital abnormality (35.1%), followed by central nervous system disorders (22.8%), digestive system disorders (17.5%), urogenital system diseases (15.8%), and chromosomal anomalies (8.8%).  Also, polyhydramnion (P=0.001, OR=14.4, CI:3.07-68.0), oligohydramnios (P=0.009, OR=13.09, CI:1.9-89.0), preeclampsia (P=0.000, OR=11.37, CI:2.99-43.14), unwanted pregnancy (P=0.000, OR=4.9, CI:2.0-13.0)), urinary tract infection in weeks 6-10 of pregnancy (P=0.045, OR=2.88, CI:1.0-18.11), and consanguinity (P=0.038, OR=2.23, CI:1.0-4.78) were determined as risk factors for congenital malformations.
Conclusion:Early diagnostic survey of pregnant women with polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, preeclampsia, unwanted pregnancy, urinary tract infection in weeks 6-10 of pregnancy, and consanguinity may be an appropriate solution toward the prevention of congenital anomalies.