Exposure to Secondhand Smoke during Pregnancy and Neonatal-Related Outcomes

Document Type : Original Article


1 Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

2 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Non-Communicable Pediatric Disease Research Center Health Research Institute Amirkola Hospital Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

3 Department of Medical and Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

4 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

5 Nursing Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

6 Amirkola Children's Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

7 School of Health, Mashad University of Medical Sciences, Mashad, Iran


Background: Fetal and neonatal health is of particular importance in pregnant women. Secondhand smoke (SHS) can jeopardize the health of the mother, fetus, and neonate. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy and neonatal-related outcomes.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2022 on 270 mother-newborn pairs through convenience sampling in two equal groups (n=135), including exposure and non-exposure to SHS at  Rohani Hospital, Babol, Children's Hospital, Amirkola, and Imam Ali Hospital, Amol. In order to collect the data, a checklist including the demographic characteristics, medical variables, questions related to the exposure of mothers to cigarette smoke, the neonatal outcomes questionnaire, and the SNAPPE-II scale were used. Data analysis was performed using STATA statistical software (version 17), and the significance level of all tests was considered less than 0.05.
Results: The mean age of mothers was 28.30±5.83 years, and 61% of births were by cesarean section. The SNAPPE-II score was 8.23​±5.29 in the non-exposure group and 20.68±13.53 in the exposure group (P=0.005). The prevalence of neonates with a birth weight of less than 2500gr was higher in mothers exposed to SHS (P=0.033).  Considering confounding variables, the neonates in the non-exposure group were, on average, 1.46 cm taller than those in the exposure group (P=0.005). Exposure to smoking increases the risk of premature birth by 1.65 times (P=0.032).  
Conclusion: Exposure of pregnant mothers to SHS is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Therefore, it is recommended to train families to avoid exposure to cigarette smoke, especially during pregnancy, and also for health centers to pay special attention to this matter in the care of pregnant mothers.


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