Microlithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis in Preterm Neonates. Is the Treatment Necessary? A One-Year Sonographic Follow-up Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran

2 Pediatric Nephrology Department, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz Iran

3 Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran

4 1. Pediatric Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran 3. Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran


Background: Renal microlithiasis includes renal hyperechogenic deposits in the calyces, pelvis, or ureter with a diameter of less than 2-3 mm by ultrasound. Currently, there is no information about the outcome and possible complications of renal calcification in premature infants in Iran. The current study aimed to evaluate its outcome in preterm infants.
Methods: A total of 50 preterm infants with microlithiasis and nephrocalcinosis enrolled in study. The follow-up ultrasound was evaluated 2, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. Following the diagnosis, infants were assessed for nephrocalcinosis progression. The group was termed unrecovered if the issue persisted during follow-up, and it was considered recovered if it disappeared on follow-up ultrasound. The neonatal data included gestation age, birth weight, length of hospital stay, age at diagnosis of microlithiasis, and used medications.
Results: A total of 50 premature infants with microlithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, including 14 females (28%) and 36 males (72%), were born with an average gestation week of 30.78 ± 2.78. The mean age of diagnosis was 2.60 ± 1.11 months. The average hospital stays at the neonatal intensive care unit) NICU (and neonatal ward were 27.38 ± 16.06 and 10.50 ± 9.57 days, respectively. At the end of the 12-month study period, renal calcification recovered in 40 (80%) patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients with sustained and recovered microlithiasis in terms of gender, age of onset of renal calcification, gestational age, mean hospital stay in NICU and neonatal ward, use of antibiotics, potassium citrate, and hydrochlorothiazide. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all statistical analyses.
Conclusion: The obtained results of the study reveal that a high percentage of premature infants with nephrocalcinosis recovered at the end of the 12-month period, indicating this phenomenon is benign.
Keywords: Aminophylline, Kidney function, Microlithiasis, Nephrocalcinosis, Premature infants 


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