A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Surfactant Administration through a Thin Intratracheal Catheter and its Administration via an Endotracheal Tube in Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Pediatrics, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

4 Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: The cornerstone of the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is respiratory support and surfactant replacement therapy. The administration of surfactant through a thin intratracheal catheter is one of the methods used to reduce one of the standard technique complications of a surfactant injection (Intubation-Surfactant-Extubation method [INSURE]). The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of this method on the treatment of RDS in neonates with one of the INSURE technique.
Methods: In this double blind clinical trial, 104 neonates with RDS were randomly allocated to two groups, one group received surfactant via an endotracheal tube (INSURE) and the other received surfactant without intubation (SWI) via a thin intratracheal catheter. Subsequently the outcomes of the two groups were compared.
Results: The incidence of hypoxemia during surfactant administration was significantly lower in the SWI group (11.5%) than in the INSURE group (28.8% , P< 0.05). no significant difference was observed in the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation during the first 72 hours of life, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the need for nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP), the need for oxygen, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage ,and death in the two groups.
Conclusion: Administration of surfactant through a thin intratracheal catheter is a safe and easy technique. This method is as effective as the INSURE method in improving the outcomes of RDS treatment.

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